Differences between smart grid and traditional gridThe traditional grid is a rigid system, the access and withdrawal of power sources, the transmission of electrical energy, etc. are inflexible, resulting in a grid without dynamic flexibility and groupability; vertical multi-level control mechanism is slow to respond, unable to build real-time, configurable and reconfigurable system; system self-healing, self-restoration ability is completely dependent on physical redundancy; simple service to customers, one-way information; system There are multiple internal information silos and a lack of information sharing.
Although the degree of local automation is constantly improving, the imperfect information and weak sharing capabilities make the system fragmented, partial and isolated, and cannot constitute a real-time organic unified whole, so the degree of intelligence of the entire grid is low.
In contrast to traditional power grids, the smart grid is envisaged to further expand the ability to access panoramic information (complete, accurate, time-sensitive, standardised power flow information and business flow information), to integrate various real-time production and operation information based on a strong, reliable and smooth physical grid architecture and information interaction platform, and to serve the entire production process.
By strengthening the analysis, diagnosis and optimisation of the grid business flow in real time, it provides grid operation and management staff with a more comprehensive, complete and detailed picture of the grid operation status, and provides corresponding auxiliary decision support, as well as control implementation plans and response plans to maximise the finer, more accurate, more timely and better performance of grid operation and management.
Compared to the traditional grid, the smart grid will further optimise grid control at all levels, build a flexible architecture with flat structure, modular functions and system configuration, combine centralisation and decentralisation, flexibly change the network structure, intelligently reorganise the system architecture, optimise the system efficiency and optimise the quality of grid services, and realise a very different concept and system from the traditional grid.
What is the meaning of smart grid?
A smart grid is based on a strong grid, supported by a communication and information platform, and controlled by intelligent means, and includes all aspects of power generation, transmission, substation, distribution, consumption and dispatch, covering all voltage levels. It is a modern grid that is strong and reliable, economical and efficient, clean and environmentally friendly, transparent and open, and friendly and interactive.
Smart grid related knowledge
The concept of “smart grid” was first proposed by the Obama administration’s energy team and has since been adopted in countries around the world. The definition varies from country to country, from power company to power institute to high-tech company (including IBM, Google, SUN, etc.). Here’s what’s happening in China.
The State Grid Corporation of China defines a smart grid as a strong grid based on an ultra-high voltage grid as the backbone and coordinated development of power grids at all levels, using advanced communication, information and control technologies to build a unified, strong and intelligent grid characterised by information, automation and interaction.
In other words, the Chinese smart grid must first meet the demand for electricity, ensure the intelligent construction of transmission and substations, ensure the safety and reliability of power supply, meet the economic significance and energy saving, and finally ensure the quality of power and renewable energy access.
In Europe and the USA, the focus is on the real “intelligence” of the grid, such as: distributed power storage, access to multiple types of clean energy, the application of smart meters, the improvement of the grid’s ability to prevent terrorist attacks and so on.
From a technical point of view, smart grids include the following: self-healing (advanced algorithms), distributed power sources (distributed applications), full utilisation of new energy sources (access and anti-disturbance), time-of-use tariffs for customers (smart meters), electric vehicle charging (charging stations) and other applications, as well as intelligent devices (EDs) and intelligent substations.
Many, most importantly power system related disciplines, followed by power electronics, communications, sensors, software, etc. are all relevant to smart grids.
What type of AI does the management of smart grids fall under
The smart grid is a highly informative power system that uses sensors to connect various devices and assets together to form a customer service bus to integrate and analyse information, thereby reducing costs, increasing efficiency, improving the reliability of the entire grid and optimising operation and management. Its characteristics can be described as: digitalisation, informatisation, automation and interaction, mainly in terms of flexibility, observability and controllability, and interoperability3. To achieve these functions it is necessary to rely on advanced sensor technology, network communication technology and automation technology.
Flexibility: Flexibility refers to the ability to maintain stable operation by adjusting power or load in the event of large and rapid fluctuations in power generation power or load resulting in power imbalance. In smart grids, the access of high penetration new energy sources creates system power imbalances and reduces flexibility, while the access of large scale electric vehicles as controllable loads increases flexibility and requires a good use of the capabilities of both;
Visibility and controllability: Visibility means having complete access to information in the grid, such as the PMUs that are now widely installed to detect states in the grid; and controllability means having an effective means to control the grid, such as mass equipped FACT elements that can help the smart grid to do this;
Interoperability: Interoperability is the ability to ensure that multiple networks, systems, devices, applications or components can communicate with each other and operate efficiently, safely and in a coordinated manner without too much human intervention. The ability to correctly activate a relay protection device in the event of a fault, for example, is a form of interoperability.